Frank Pobell. “Matter and methods at Low Temperatures.” Springer; 3rd edition, 2007.

William. P. Halperin. “The impact of helium shortages on basic research.” Nature Physics 10, no. 7 (2014): 467-470.

Introduction to Wet Refrigerators

This talk primarily covered the basics of open-cyle 4He, closed-cycle 3He, dilution, and nuclear demagnetization refrigerators with Pobell’s book as the primary reference (see reference list above). There was also a brief discussion about the ongoing Helium crisis. The interested reader is referred to the above article by Halperin.

The presentation slides for this talk can be found here. The video recording of this talk can be found here. The size of this file is 2.41 GB. If you are connected to the Caltech network via an ethernet cable, and if the network is not too busy, then the download rate could go as high as 10-20 MB/s; on average you can get 1-2 MB/s. You must be connected to the Caltech network via VPN, Remote Desktop, SSH, etc. in order to download the videos.